TUBERCULOSIS AND SMOKING – by M. Rizwan Nurhuda

An ancient disease that has called Tuberculosis. It’s time! to speak up. TB remains the world’s deadliest infectious killer. Each day, over 4000 people lose their lives to TB and close to 30,000 people fall ill with this preventable and curable disease. Tuberculosis (TB) is an airborne disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, spread through inhaling tiny droplets from the coughs or sneezes of an infected person. It mainly affects the lungs, but it can affect any part of the body. Other parts of the body, such as the brain, intestines, kidneys, or the spine. A person with TB infection will have no symptoms. A person with active TB disease may have any or all of the following typical symptoms, include chronic cough with blood-tinged sputum, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. Diagnosis is done by tuberculin test, x-rays, and microbial culture. BCG vaccine is available for prevention of disease.

Those at risk among the most agile and economically active age group, and the number of windows, history of hospital admission, a household member who had TB, illiteracy, low household income, and smoking and lack of BCG scar were identified as independent risk factors. Include poorly nourished individuals, and those with poor immune defenses such as persons infected with HIV, diabetics, alcoholics, patients with leukemia and patients receiving immunosuppressive therapies. Therefore it is imperative that the TB control effort needs a strategy to address socio-economic issues such as poverty, overcrowding, smoking, and infection control at health care facilities level is an important intervention to prevent transmission of TB within the facilities.

One-third of the world population is infected with tuberculosis, and over 8 million people were developing each year. On the other hand, tobacco is responsible for 3 million deaths in the world. For Indonesia, our country has the third biggest TB cases in the world. Whereas Indonesia is ranked as having the fourth-largest number of smokers in the world. At present, there are more and more epidemiological data to suggest a relationship between TB and tobacco.

Smoking increases the risk of contracting tuberculosis (TB), increases the risk of recurrent TB and impairs the response to treatment of the disease. Despite evidence showing these harmful links between tobacco and TB, many people continue to smoke. Compared with nonsmokers, those who smoke tobacco have twice the risk of TB disease, and patients with TB who smoke have twice the risk of death during TB treatment.
The theme of World TB Day 2020 is “It’s TIME” the spotlight this year is on urgently accelerating the TB response to save lives and end suffering. Annually, we commemorate World Tuberculosis (TB) Day on March 24, a day to educate the public about the impact of TB around the world. To raise public awareness about the devastating health, social and economic consequences of TB, and to step up efforts to end the global TB epidemic. It’s Time! to end TB, we must continue to work together to fight this epidemic on multiple fronts and stop the suffering associated with this disease, here at home and around the world. TB is preventable and curable.

Resources

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Slama, K., Chiang, C.Y., Enarson, D.A. (2007). Tobacco and tuberculosis: a qualitative systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 11(10), 1049–1061.

WHO. 2020. Smoking and tuberculosis: a dangerous combination. http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/communicable-diseases/tuberculosis/news/news/2018/3/smoking-and-tuberculosis-a-dangerous-combination (accesed 16 March 2020)

WHO. 2020. World Tuberculosis Day 2020 It’s time to End TB!. https://www.who.int/news-room/campaigns/world-tb-day/world-tb-day-2020 (accesed 16 March 2020)

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CIMSliography
2013-2014 : Vice President for Internal Affairs MMSA Fakultas Kedokteran dan Ilmu Kesehatan Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta
2014-2015 : National Public Health Officer CIMSA Indonesia
2015-2016 : Supervising Council CIMSA Indonesia